Does Large Intestine Motility reduce Secretions and motility increased Liver Increased conversion of glycogen to glucose ?
The stress reaction
Topic: The stress reaction (module 2, case)
The physiological? and psychological responses to stress
Most people have heard of the fight-or-flight response: a physiological reaction to threat that mobilizes an organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy. It was first described by Walter Cannon in 1932. It is generated by the activity of autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is made up of the nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and gland
Autonomic Nervous System: The autonomic nervous system is the human’s involuntary, self-managing division of the human nervous system. There are two subdivisions to the ANS – the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches. Both of these are crucial to keeping us alive, but the parasympathetic or “vegetative” branch manages long-term life-sustaining functions such as digestion and rest, while the sympathetic division is more akin to a “crisis management” center that prepares us to meet and deal with immediate threats to our well-being. It is an old program that was very useful when life was more frequently nasty, short and brutish. The sympathetic reaction allowed our early ancestors to escape from predators and other (hostile) humans, and also gave us the strength to protect others (children and relatives.) The problem for modern humans is that this the reaction will be provoked whether there is an immediate threat. It may be useful if you feel you are being followed by a mugger, but it is not so useful when you are stuck in a traffic jam.
Sympathetic stimulation (fight or flight – run away response) is a result of any stressor.
Parasympathetic stimulation (rest and digest) is a result of a relaxation mode. You can note how the heart, arteries, and veins get affected with stress. All these sympathetic stimulation increases the risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and heart attacks.
Responses of major organs to autonomic nerve impulses
The Autonomic Nervous System
Structure Sympathetic Stimulation Parasympathetic Stimulation
Iris (eye muscle) Pupil Dilation Pupil Constriction
Salivary Glands Saliva production reduced Saliva production increased
Oral/Nasal Mucosa Mucus production reduced Mucus production increased
Heart Heart rate and force increased Heart rate and force decreased
Lung Bronchial muscle relaxed Bronchial muscle contracted
Stomach Peristalsis reduced Gastric juice secreted; motility increased
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