Pain Assessment in the Non-communicative ICU Patient

Topic: Pain Assessment in the Non-communicative ICU Patient

Hi please I need a paper on pain assessment in the non- communicative ICU patients. the introduction and the references are already provided. I need 5 pages or a little more. please!!!!! use the articles provided below the web cites are provided but give correct APA format without the webcites . also include the page numbers. the teacher commented for corrections on the references and introductions please follow the instructions. this is the 2nd time I am paying to do the same paper because it wasn’t done rightly the first time.

Please use the following high acuity help sheet instructions below to guide write the paper and cite the way the teacher wants .

High Acuity Paper: Help Sheet

Indent all paragraphs. The title is also placed on the first page and is centered. The title is not in boldface. Do not use the word introduction in place of the title. All writing must be double-spaced. At the end of the introduction, please state (in sentence form) the purpose of your paper. Please use proper citations throughout.
Citations
●the first time the authors are cited, all names must be present if there are less than six). Below
are two ways to cite these authors. Also note that a direct quote must be enclosed in quotation
marks and the page number needs to be provided with other citation information.
“These fluid intellectual transformations occur when students reconcile formal instructional experiences with their existing knowledge, the social and cultural context in which ideas occur, and a host of other influences that serve to mediate understanding” (Legg, Adelman,
Mueller, & Levitt, 2009, p. 65).
According to Legg, Adelman, Mueller, and Levitt (2009), “these fluid intellectual transformations occur when students reconcile formal instructional experiences with their existing knowledge, the social and cultural context in which ideas occur, and a host of other influences that serve to mediate understanding” (p. 65).
On a subsequent citation of these authors, all names do not need to appear. If the subsequent citation is a direct quote, cite as follows: (Legg et al., 2009, p. 34), if the subsequent citation is paraphrased, cite as follows (Legg et al., 2009).
Legg, T., Adelman, D., & Levitt, C. (2009). Constructivist strategies in online distance education in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(2), 64-69.
More than 6 authors cite as follows for a quote or paraphrasing respectively: (Smith et al., 2005, p. 26), (Smith et al., 2005).

APA Within the Manuscript
Abbreviations
Explain all abbreviations in APA format. State the words on the abbreviation followed by
the abbreviation in parentheses. The patient was receiving care in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Once the abbreviation has been explained, it can be used as an abbreviation throughout the
remainder of the paper. Family members of ICU patients can be overwhelmed by the equipment
and technology.
Numbers
When referencing some numbers (except when the numbers reference a scale), write the word for the number if it is less than 10. The research study include six patients who were noncompliant. The patient was asked to rate her pain on a scale of 1 to 10.

,

just look at pain assessment scales. I DO NOT want anything on pain management. And, no website provided.

NOTE!!!!!!!!!!!!!
the article introduction and references starts below.

Pain Assessment in Non-Communicative Patient

Pain assessments in non-communicative patients is a very important skill for the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses to learn. Assessing pain in non-communicative patients takes different approaches than those used to assess pain in communicative patients. While the most used assessment in communicative patients is verbal assessment, that is not possible in non-communicative patients. Therefore, one of the most commonly used pain behaviors to evaluate pain in a non-communicative patient is facial expression (Rahu & Grap, 2010). Stites and Surprise (2014) found that, “pain is a frequent source of stress in the ICU and is experienced by nearly all critically ill patients during their stay” (p.36). Since pain is experienced so often in the ICU, nurses need to learn how to assess pain in non-communicative patients. (When patients rea not treated appropriately for pain, what can happen????)
According to Kirksey, McGlory and Sefeik (2015), 50% of patients admitted to ICU are 65 years or older. ICU nurses need to learn to assess pain in elderly adults that cannot communicate since they constitute a large part of the ICU patient population. The purpose of this paper is to learn the current standards and interventions to provide quality care and assessment of pain in non-communicative patients in the ICU.


 

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