PWDs neuropsychiatric symptoms 

PWDs neuropsychiatric symptoms PWDs neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed by FCGs with the Chinese neuropsychiatric inventory (CNPI) (Leung, Lam, Chin, Cummings, & Chen, 2001), which was adapted from the original scale (Cummings, 1997) and measures 12 behavioral manifestations of PWDs. The CNPI requires FCGs to evaluate the frequency and severity of PWDs psychiatric symptoms, and multiplies both scores into a final score.

A higher final score suggests a higher frequency and severity of psychiatric symptoms. The concurrent validity of the original scale correlated (p < 0.001) with the corresponding domains in the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimers Disease Rating Scale (Reisberg et al., 1987).

The overall internal consistency of the CNPI was 0.84, while the interrater reliability (kappa coefficients) ranged from 0.7 to 1.00, demonstrating an acceptable level of agreement between raters (Leung et al., 2001). In this study, the CNPIs Cronbachs a was 0.85.

FCGs caregiving distress FCGs caregiving distress was assessed by the CNPI-Caregiver Distress Scale (Leung et al., 2001), which requires FCGs to rate their own distress from 0 (not at all distressing) to 5 (very severely or extremely distressing) regarding the 12 psychiatric symptoms of PWDs assessed by the CNPI;

higher scores indicate greater caregiving distress. Cronbachs a of the CNPI-Caregiver Distress Scale in this study was 0.88. FCGs depressive symptoms FCGs depressive symptoms were assessed by the 10-item Chinese Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) (Boey, 1999), which emphasizes emotional symptoms


 

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