A 72 year old male presents with a reduced ejection fraction, D/T left ventricular hypertrophy.

1.What is the most likely cause of left ventricular hypertrophy?
2.How does this type of cellular adaptation relate to the inability of heart muscle cells to undergo division?
3.Briefly explain how cellular adaptation provides an “advantage” to the heart muscle; and, explain how cellular adaptation may ultimately contribute to heart “failure” if the underlying stress is not reversed.
4. Describe cellular adaptations that occur during atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia and metaplasia and identify conditions when each can occur.


 

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