What is the background to the argument or the rationale for the paper and what is the hypothesis(es)?

2. What is the background to the argument or the rationale for the paper and what is the hypothesis(es)?

3. What methods were used in the study, what were the findings, and what are the main claims of the authors?

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Framing Charity Advertising: Influences of
Message Framing, Image Valence, and
Temporal Framing on a Charitable Appeal1
Chun-Tuan Chang2
Department of Business Management
National Sun Yat-sen University
Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Yu-Kang Lee
Department of Political Economy
National Sun Yat-sen University
Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
This study examined when and how charitable advertisements could be effective in
the context of child poverty. An experiment investigated the influences of message
framing, image valence, and temporal framing on a charitable appeal. The results
indicate that image valence enhances framing effects on advertising effectiveness of
a charitable appeal when the image is congruent with the framed message, especially
when the image and the message are presented negatively. A short-term temporal
frame facilitates effects of a negatively framed message with a negative pictorial
presentation. Alternatively, a long-term temporal frame increases advertising influences
of a positively framed message with a positive pictorial image. Relevance for
information processing of charity advertising is discussed.jasp_555 2910..2935
In civil society, social welfare is delivered not only through government
agencies, but also through various nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Both
types of organizations attempt to build a humane society and coordinate
humanitarianism activities in the interest of deprived people. In recent years,
all levels of governments have faced shrinking revenues, and NPOs can
no longer rely heavily on governmental funding to sustain or expand their
philanthropic activities (Nelson, Brunel, Supphellen, & Manchanda, 2006).
Charitable donations, therefore, have become vital financial sources for the
ongoing development of NPOs.
Individual giving is always the largest single source of donations, and
more than 60% of U.S. households give to charity (Ruotolo, 2006). This is
1The earlier findings of this research were presented at the conference of European Association
of Consumer Research and at the annual meeting of the Association of Consumer
Research. The authors thank the conference audience and the reviewers for their valuable
comments and suggestions. The authors also appreciate the financial support of the National
Science Council, Republic of China.
2Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Chun-Tuan Chang, Department
of Business Management, National Sun Yat-sen University, No. 70, Lianhai Road,
Gushan District, Kaohsiung City 804, Taiwan. E-mail: ctchang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw or to
Yu-Kang Lee, Department of Political Economy, National Sun Yat-sen University, No. 70
Lianhai Road, Gushan District, Kaohsiung City, 804, Taiwan. Email: yklee@mail.nsysu.edu.tw




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