Describe the concept of external validity.

Section A
Smart D, English A, James J, Wilson M, Daratha KB, Childers B, Magera C (2014) Compassion fatigue and satisfaction: A cross-sectional survey among US healthcare workers Nursing and Health Sciences, 16, 3-10

1. Critically discuss the extent to which the evidence provided by the researchers allows the reader to judge the validity and reliability of the data collection tools employed. How might your conclusions affect the level of confidence that can be had in the results of the study? (10 marks)

2. Describe the concept of external validity. Critically comment on the methods employed by the researchers in obtaining a representative sample (10 marks)

3. Identify two ethical requirements when undertaking research and discuss the extent to which these were addressed by the researchers (10 marks)

4. What is the difference between an ANOVA test and an Independent Samples t-Test? Which result displayed in Table 2 shows whether any difference is statistically significant? What does this tell you about the results for burnout scores for the different work units? (10 marks)

5. The study found that a negative correlation existed between compassion satisfaction and burnout (r=-0.788, P<0.001). How was this measured and what does this result mean in terms of practice? (5 marks)
Section B
Bramley L and Matiti M (2014) How does it really feel to be in my shoes? Patients’ experiences of compassion within nursing care and their perceptions of developing compassionate nurses Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23, 2790-2799

1. In terms of purpose, what is the primary difference between qualitative and quantitative research? (5 marks)

2. How did the researcher find her sample of interviewees? Critically consider the issues of representativeness in this sample and how this might affect the research findings(10 marks)

3. What are the strengths and limitations of using individual interviews as opposed to focus groups in a study of this kind?(10 marks)

4. Critically discuss the extent to which the researcher’s account of the data analysis process is sufficiently transparent to ensure trustworthiness(15 marks)

5. Qualitative researchers often use quotations from participants to emphasise their findings. In what way do you think the use of quotations here adds to the paper’s evidence? (5 marks)
Section C
Summarise the main findings of the two research papers and discuss their relevancy in terms of your own professional practice(Mental Health Nursing)(10 marks)


 

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