The ethical issues that the United States and other nations must address when faced with the health care challenges of an aging population.

This is two different assignment, one page for each discussion board
FIRST Assignment: :According to the CDC, “in the United States, the proportion of the population aged >65 years is projected to increase from 12.4% in 2000 to 19.6% in 2030,” (CDC, 2003, para. 2). Caring for this aging population is going to be one of the greatest challenges facing the health care industry. Not only will the number of individuals requiring care rise, but so will the cost. As poignantly stated by Crippen and Barnato, “unless we change the practice of medicine and reduce future costs, and explicitly address the ethical dilemmas we face, there may come a time when our kids simply cannot afford us” (2011, p. 128).

In this Discussion, you will examine the ethical issues that the United States and other nations must address when faced with the health care challenges of an aging population.

To prepare:

Consider the ethical aspects of health care and health policy for an aging population.
Review the Hayutin, Dietz, and Mitchell report presented in the Learning Resources. The authors pose the question, “What are the economic consequences, now and for future generations of taxpayers if we fail to adapt our policies to the changing reality of an older population?” (p. 21). Consider how you would respond to this question. In addition, reflect on the ethical decisions that arise when dispersing limited funds.
Contemplate the impact of failing to adjust policy in accordance with the changing reality of an older population.
Reflect on the ethical dilemmas that arise when determining expenditures on end-of-life health care.

Milstead, J. A. (2013). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Chapter 7, “Program Evaluation” (pp. 137–159)

In this chapter, the focus is on how nurses can participate in public policy or program evaluation. It includes a summary of the methodologies that can be used in evaluation and how to best communicate the results
Craig, H. D. (2010). Caring enough to provide healthcare: An organizational framework for the ethical delivery of healthcare among aging patients. International Journal for Human Caring, 14(4), 27–30.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The author of this text investigates the ethical discussions surrounding health care resource allocation among aging patients. The article supplies an organizational decision-making model for health care resource allocation among the aging.
Crippen, D., & Barnato, A. E. (2011). The ethical implications of health spending: Death and other expensive conditions. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 39(2), 121–129.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article analyzes the ethical considerations of health care expenditure in the United States. The authors examine the particular means of funding health care services, as well as the tradeoffs of certain funding decisions.
Goethals, S., Gastmans, C., & Dierckx de Casterle, B. (2010). Nurses’ ethical reasoning and behaviour: A literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(5), 635–650.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article presents a literature review on nurses’ ethical practice with regard to their processes of ethical reasoning and decision making. The authors explore how nurses reason and act in ethically difficult situations.
Pavlish, C., Brown-Saltzman, K., Hersh, M., Shirk, M., & Rounkle, A. (2011). Nursing priorities, actions, and regrets for ethical situations in clinical practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 385–395.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article reviews the results of a survey to determine nursing priorities and actions in ethically difficult situations. The authors conclude that not enough evidence-based ethics actions have been developed.
Zomorodi, M., & Foley, B. J. (2009). The nature of advocacy vs. paternalism in nursing: Clarifying the ‘thin line.’ Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(8), 1746–1752.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article explores the concepts of advocacy and paternalism in nursing. The authors utilize four case studies to compare the two concepts.
American Nurses Association. (2012). Code of Ethics for Nurses. Retrieved from https://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses

The information on this site provides a framework and guide as to standards of ethical and quality behavior.
Hayutin, A. M., Dietz, M., & Mitchell, L. (2010). New realities of an older America. Retrieved from https://longevity3.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/New-Realities-of-an-Older-America.pdf

This report highlights the impending challenges that come with the United States’ shifting demographics. In particular, the authors focus on aging, diversity, housing, health, and personal finance.

Media

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012a). Ethics and advocacy. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes.

SECOND ASSIGNMENT:

What Can Nurses Do?

Many people, most of them in tropical countries of the Third World, die of preventable, curable diseases. . . . Malaria, tuberculosis, acute lower-respiratory infections—in 1998, these claimed 6.1 million lives. People died because the drugs to treat those illnesses are nonexistent or are no longer effective. They died because it doesn’t pay to keep them alive.
–Ken Silverstein, Millions for Viagra. Pennies for Diseases of the Poor, The Nation, July 19, 1999

Unfortunately, since 1998, little has changed. For many individuals living in impoverished underdeveloped countries, even basic medical care is difficult to obtain. Although international agencies sponsor outreach programs and corporations, and although nonprofit organizations donate goods and services, the level of health care remains far below what is necessary to meet the needs of struggling populations. Polluted water supplies, unsanitary conditions, and poor nutrition only exacerbate the poor health prevalent in these environments. Nurses working in developed nations have many opportunities/advantages that typically are not available to those in underdeveloped countries. What can nurses do to support their international colleagues and advocate for the poor and underserved of the world?

In this Discussion, you will consider the challenges of providing health care for the world’s neediest citizens, as well as how nurses can advocate for these citizens.

To prepare:

Consider the challenges of providing health care in underdeveloped countries.
Conduct research in the Walden Library and other reliable resources to determine strategies being used to address these challenges.
Using this week’s Learning Resources, note the factors that impact the ability of individuals in underdeveloped nations to obtain adequate health care.
Consider strategies nurses can use to advocate for health care at the global level. What can one nurse do to make a difference?

Kovner, A. R., & Knickman, J. R. (Eds.). (2011). Health care delivery in the United States (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
Chapter 4, “Comparative Health Systems” (pp. 67–82)

The chapter showcases different models of health care systems in order to help policymakers and managers critically assess and improve health care in the United States.
Chapter 15, “Health Workforce” (review pp. 321–325)

Review this section of Chapter 15, which details health workforce issues for nurses and nurse practitioners.
Milstead, J. A. (2013). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Chapter 11, “Global Connections” (207–217)

This chapter addresses how the health status of individuals and populations around the world can affect policymaking in a country.
Bloch, G., Rozmovits, L., & Giambrone, B. (2011). Barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a risk factor for health. BMC Family Practice, 12(1), 62–67.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article details a qualitative study that was conducted to explore the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty. The authors explicate a variety of health impacts attributable to poverty.
Harrowing, J. N. (2009). The impact of HIV education on the lives of Ugandan nurses and nurse-midwives. Advances in Nursing Science, 32(2), E94–E108.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article explores the impact of an HIV/AIDS education program for Ugandan nurses and nurse-midwives. The author details the motivations behind the program and recommendations for the future.
Koplan, J. P., Bond, C., Merson, M. H., Reddy, K. S., Rodriquez, M. H., Sewankambo, N. K., & Wasserheit, J. N. (2009). Towards a common definition of global health. The Lancet, 373, 1993–1995. Retrieved from https://www.cfhi.org/web/fckeditor/uploaded/File/publications/intro%20page%20links/Toward%20a%20Definition%20of%20GH%20June%202009PracticalGlobal%20PublicHealth.pdf
This article provides a full description of the components that comprise global health care in detail.
Gapminder. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.gapminder.org

This website explains statistical graphs and tables of life expectancy and incomes around the world.
Global Health Council. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.globalhealth.org

This website houses the productivity and efforts of the Global Health Council as the world’s largest alliance dedicated to improving health throughout the world.
Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation: U.S. Global Health Policy. (2010). Retrieved from https://kff.org/globaldata/

This website focuses on major health care issues facing the United States, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.
International Council of Nurses. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.icn.ch/

This website documents the efforts of the International Council of Nurses to ensure quality nursing care for all, as well as sound health policies globally through the advancement of nursing knowledge and presence worldwide.
United Nations Statistics Division. (2011). Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm

This website examines global statistical information compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division.
University of Pittsburgh Center for Global Health. (2009). Retrieved from https://www.globalhealth.pitt.edu/

This website analyzes health issues that affect populations around the globe through research at the University of Pittsburgh.
The World Bank (n.d.) The costs of attaining the millennium development goals. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/mdgassessment.pdf

This article states that many countries will have to reform their policies and improve service delivery to make additional spending effective because the additional aid for education and health with not be enough.


 

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