PWDs cognitive function PWDs cognitive function
PWDs cognitive function PWDs cognitive function was assessed by the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975; Guo et al., 1988), a widely used instrument for screening and monitoring global cognitive impairment. The Chinese MMSE had good validity and reliability (Guo et al., 1988) and measures orientation, registration, recall, language, and spatial capacity with a total possible score of 30. Higher scores suggest higher levels of cognitive function. MMSE total scores were collected from chart review for outpatient PWDs, while scores on community-dwelling PWDs were administered by trained research assistants. We did not calculate MMSE Cronbachs a in this study. PWDs depression symptoms Depressive symptoms of PWDs were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form (GDS-S) (Sheikh & Yesavage, 1986), which eliminates the influence of somatic complaints on depressive symptoms in older adults (Yesavage, Brink, & Lum, 1983). The GDS-S consists of 15 yes/no questions; higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms (Sheikh & Yesavage, 1986). The internal consistency and construct validity of the Chinese GDS-S were good (Cronbachs a ¬ 0.81, r ¬ 0.91, p < 0.01) (Lu, Liu, & Yu, 1998). In this study, Cronbachs a of GDS-S was 0.80.
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